Lapis Lazuli is a vibrant blue gemstone treasured for its deep, rich color. It is not a pure mineral, but rather a rock composed of varying proportions of minerals; lazurite, sodalite, hauyne, calcite and pyrite. It is primarily the result of contact metamorphism of certain limestones, and found in large deposits at few locations in the world. The main historical mining site has always been in Northern Afghanistan. Secondary deposits may be found in Siberia, Canada and Chile, where the the material is generally lower grade.